Kuban Cossacks on the Southwestern front, 1917. Photographer: Khoruzhiy (standard-bearer) A.M Strokun.
Original caption: Кубанские казаки в окопах. Юго-западный фронт, 1917 г. Фотограф Хорунжий А.М. Строкун.
Origin: Kuban Cossacks World War One, World War One Collection, E.D. Felitsyna Krasnodar State Historical and Archaeological Museum-Reserve, Krasnodar, Russia.
“The Bulgarian army was a veteran force due to its participation in the Balkan Wars. In the First World War it committed two armies to the campaign that overran Serbia. The victory established a direct connection between the Austro-German and Bulgarian-Ottoman halves of the Central Alliance. The Bulgarian army then held in place 300,000 Entente soldiers who might have been utilized on the Western Front or elsewhere. Without the participation of Bulgaria in its ranks,the Central Powers might not have held out until the autumn of 1918 against the Entente. Surely the German connection to the Ottoman Empire would have remained tenuous, and the Romanian threat to Austria-Hungary could have proved viable. Had the Bulgarians not endured as long as they did on the Macedonian Front, an Entente thrust could have broken through and brought about the collapse of the other Central Powers allies against the more numerous,better-fed, and better-equipped Entente opponents as early as 1916.”
— Hall, Richard, “Bulgaria in the First World War,” Phi Alpha Theta Volume 73, Issue 2 (2011), p. 315.
Picture taken by Serbian war photographer Risto Sukovic (1885-1939) after the September 1916 Battle for Kajmakcalan, a mountain range between modern day Greece and Macedonia. The battle took place between Serbian and Bulgarian troops and ended with a victory for Serbia. These headstones commemorate missing Serbian soldiers.
“It required a very desperate condition indeed to force the Serbian soldiers to stay behind. The period of dreary, continuous rainfall continued, and it was into a sea of water and mud that the wounded had to flee… Nearly all the hobbling, bandaged, bloody, emaciated men were bareheaded…The bandages became soggy, and the wounds began to bleed afresh… and were [soon] filthy from the street slush… They refused to stay and be captured. There were no more clothes for them, so they faced a journey in pouring rain, no one knew where nor how long. Some could not walk alone and the stronger aided. This determination never to be prisoners was general throughout the hospitals of Serbia. The Serb never believes he will die until he is dead and the wounded Serbs wanted to fight again.”
— Fortier Jones, With Serbia into Exile: An American’s Adventures with the Army that Cannot Die, pp. 76-77.