Architecture, History

Secret Rooms and Writings on the Wall: Preserving Armenia’s Christian Heritage

Inscriptions inside of Novarank Monastery, 13th century.

In the mid-7th century, Muslim Arabs invaded Armenia from the east, destroying Christian religious centers and burning manuscripts. Beginning in the 12th century, waves of Seljuk Turks flooded into Anatolia, absorbing medieval Armenia. Under this new invader, religious oppression over Christians and their monuments continued.

Stone proved to preserve history and scripture better than fragile parchment. Thus, monks began inscribing information and descriptions into the walls and over doorways. They contain information about architects, sculptors, events in history, and other information pertinent to the monasteries and the lands surrounding them. These inscriptions are written in old Armenian; nevertheless, the script is identical to the Armenian script used in modern times

A preserved stones from Goshavank Monastery near the town of Dilijan, 12th century.
The entrance to Harichavank Monastery, 7th Century. The original monastery was razed by the Seljuk Turks in the early 11th century.

Hidden rooms provided a second method of historical preservation. Monks sealed manuscripts into these rooms. Other times, they would create hollow pillars filled with written work that survived not only the Arabs and Seljuks, but the Ottoman Turks, who ruled them into the 20th century. Some were so well-hidden that 19th century scholars were the first to see them since they were sealed away. The 10th-11th century complex Haghartsin (pictured below) provides an excellent example.


Another interesting feature of Hagharstin is its architectural ingenuity. Armenians, living in an earthquake ridden nation, developed layered walls to limit destruction and make repairs easier. The outer and inner walls are relatively thin slabs of stone. The interiors were a mixture of stones, eggs, garlic, and other adhesives. This provided buoyancy and absorbed shock from earthquakes. Stones slabs that did fall were easily replaced as the filling maintained integrity.

All information was given by the links provided and the Hyur Tour Agency and its incredibly knowledgeable staff.

Architecture, History, Travel Tips

Geghard Monastery, Armenia


Geghard Monastery was founded in the 4th century by Gregory the Illuminator. In the 9th century, Arab invaders destroyed the original complex. The main chapel standing today is 800-years-old and is a protected UNESCO world heritage site.

It is believed that the spear used to kill Jesus was stored here. In fact, the name Geghard means “spear” in Armenian.

Getting to the monastery: Small buses leave from the Gai bus station next to the Mercedes Benz showroom in northern Yerevan roughly every half hour starting at 10am for 300 dram (less than $1). I cannot stress this enough: before leaving, make sure to verify which buses/trams reach Gai because bus routes in Yerevan change constantly and even travel blogs from 2017 and 2018 suggest bus numbers that no longer exist or no longer reach Gai. I used an app called A2B Transport to pick a bus, which has an updated public transport itinerary. I used bus #5 from the city center for 100 dram.

The mini bus will take you to a town called Ghoght, from which you can take a taxi to the monastery. I decided to go to the Monastery before visiting the pagan temple in Garni, but most people visit Garni first.


Девицы_в_кубиляках._Донской_нарядный_костюм._1875-1876Ivan Vasilievitch Boldirev (Иван Васильевич Болдырев) (1849/50 – 1898) – National Library of Russia, Saint-Petersburg, Russia, Public Domain,

Don Cossack women wearing coubilyaks (кубиляках), traditional clothing worn for feasts, c. 1875-76.


The Treaty of Sevres, c. 1920

Image source: Treaty_of_Serves_Greece.jpg, Public Domain,

A map depicting the territory Greece would have acquired in the Treaty of Sevres, c. 1920, which dealt with the partitioning of the Ottoman Empire following their defeat in World War I. The Anatolian territories contain land that the Greeks occupied for centuries before and during the reign of the Ottoman Empire. However, in 1923, the Treaty of Lusanne replaced Sevres after Turkish nationalists, lead by Mustafa Kemal Ataturk, defeated Greece in the Greco-Turkish war. Thus, Greece lost Anatolia. Population exchanges between Turks and Greeks ensued with thousands on each side losing homes that their families lived on for generations.